Nineteenth-century Catholics, for India Phone Number List example, lambasted the spread of new liberal ideas and institutions, often characterized as the revival of the Protestant Reformation. In Protestantism compared with Catholicism in its relations with European civilization(1887), one of the most popular and translated polemical essays India Phone Number List of the time, Jaime Balmes argues that Luther's attack on the mediatorial role of the Church demolished Europeans' respect for authority, leading directly to the French Revolution and all subsequent political upheavals.Jeffrey Herf,warned in The American Interestin 2009 that "radical India Phone Number List Islam's" anti-Semitism and hatred of the Enlightenment made it a "variant of totalitarian ideological politics." For Herf, as for most who used the epithet, the historical analogy made it clear why.
Al Qaeda and similar organizations India Phone Number List should not be understood as fringe groups whose terrorism was an expression of weakness.A century later, when liberal writers began their campaign against communism, they India Phone Number List often compared it to Catholicism, which had long been their enemy: they said it was not just an alternative economic system, but a value system that it was all-encompassing and required total submission, not only of the body but also of the mind. As Arthur M. Schlesinger said in The India Phone Number List Vital Centerin 1949, both systems make their followers "so emotionally dependent on discipline" that they lack the ability to think independently. Fascism was also part of the mobilizing controversy.
An although this fact was rarely India Phone Number List mentioned in the debates after 2016, one of its most important uses as a historical analogy was not the campaign against the extreme right, but against Muslims. In the first decade of the 21st century, journalists and thinkers warned of a revival of fascism among radical Muslim groups, a India Phone Number List phenomenon they termed "Islamofascism." Christopher Hitchens, Norman Podhoretz, and others reflected that Osama bin Laden's followers embodied blind Nazi fanaticism, glorification of violence, hatred of feminism, and opposition to "Western freedoms." These assertions India Phone Number List flourished not only trivial slogans but also a considerable academic production.